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The Aggresive Risk Factor Reduction Study for Atrial Fibrillation and Implications for the Outcome of Ablation (ARREST-AF) provide big gains in our understanding of the link between AF and cardiometabolic risk factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, alcohol excess, and sleep apnea. In ARREST-AF, the same strategy of physician-led aggressive RFM was compared with standard care after ablation. The investigators screened 281 consecutive patients referred for AF ablation and offered RFM to 149 who had a BMI >27 kg/m2 and one or more risk factors. In multivariate analyses, AF-free survival after ablation was nearly five times more likely (HR=4.8) in the RFM (risk factors management) group.