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In a study of 18-to-45-year-olds (73% men) with untreated stage 1 hypertension, "moderate coffee drinkers" who drank one to three espressos a day were three times as likely to have a CV event (mostly a heart attack) within a decade as those who did not drink coffee (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0; 95% CI 1.1–8.3; P=0.040).

Moreover, "heavy coffee drinkers" who drank four or more espressos a day were four times as likely to have a CV event as abstainers (HR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2–12.8; P=0.020).. These findings from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST) were presented  at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2015 Congress.

Increasing coffee consumption was also tied to a greater likelihood of developing hypertension requiring treatment (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1–1.9; P=0.004) or developing prediabetes (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.1; P=0.0017). An average follow-up were 12.5  years.